- In what country
was the oldest cotton fabric discovered?
Where was cotton
first known to be cultivated?
Name the major
cotton producing areas of the world?
United States, China, India, Pakistan, and Republic
of Uzbekistan. Also, Brazil, Australia,
Egypt, Argentina, Turkey, Greece,
Why did the
English resist the progress of
Wool manufacturers did not want competition from cotton
the cotton gin and when?
Eli Whitney, in 1793
Where was cotton
first known to be grown in the
U.S. and by whom?
The Spaniards first grew cotton in Florida.
the first U.S. cotton mill?
What are cotton
locks called after removal from
the cotton bur?
is used to separate cottonseed
What is cotton
fiber called after separated from
How is cotton
harvested in modernized countries?
Mechanical spindle pickers or brush strippers harvest
How was cotton
What did the
Rust Brothers of Mississippi invent?
The mechanical cotton picker
What is a popular
term used for cotton?
What is wild
Cotton that grows uncultivated in the world.
Name the varieties
of cotton grown in the United States?
American Pima and Upland
What is the
The cotton producing region of the United States.
How many states
form the Cotton Belt?
Seventeen-California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma,
Arkansas, Missouri, Mississippi,
Alabama, Louisiana, Florida, Tennessee,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia,
Georgia, and Kansas
of U.S. cotton has the longest
and shortest fiber?
Upland has the shortest fiber and Pima has the longest
of cotton are the most common?
Upland and Pima
What are cotyledons?
Seedling leaves, first to appear on the cotton plant.
What do cotyledons
help provide for a young plant?
Cotyledons help produce food for the young plant through
What is photosynthesis?
The process that uses the chlorophyll in plants to
convert sunlight to carbohydrates.
Name the various
parts of the cotton plant?
Leaves, squares, flower, boll, bracts, locks, carpel
Name the components
of the dry mature cotton boll?
The bur is made of dried carpels and cotton locks.
What is a seedbed?
The row or ridge in which the cotton seeds will be
What is listing?
Forming the land into ridges and furrows.
What is irrigation?
Adding moisture to the soil by artificial means.
Name three methods
Furrow, sprinkler and drip tape irrigation
What is rain-feed
Depending entirely on rainfall for moisture needed
for plant growth.
Name three methods
of weed control in a cotton field?
Mechanical cultivation, hand rogueing and herbicides.
method of weed control?
Cultivation-Uses a mechanical implement to loosen the
soil and remove weed. Hand rogueing-Is physical labor using a weed hoe to
remove weeds. Herbicides-Uses chemicals to control weeds.
What does a
cotton planter do?
Mechanically places the seed in the soil.
List two methods
Hand planting and mechanical
What is a crop
A person who monitors a field for pests and recommends
treatment if necessary.
How are insect
pests controlled or eliminated?
By the use of insecticide or predator insects.
Integrated Pest Management
is the use of beneficial insects
to help control the harmful insect
What is fertilizer?
Plant food or nutrients added to the crop to enhance
pests that plague cotton fields?
Aphid, mite, bollworms, boll weevil, lygus, thrip,
white fly and pink bollworms.
What are beneficial
What does a
Aids in the cotton harvest by causing the plant's leaves
to dry and fall off.
What is the
picker head of a cotton picker?
The unit of the cotton picker that contains the picking
Name some components
of the picker head?
Spindles, picking bar, moistener pads, doffer, and
mechanics of the picking components?
Spindles-Barbed steel units that revolve to grab and
pull the lint from the opened bolls.
Picking bar-A vertical bar that contains 18-20 spindles.
Moistener pads-Small finned pads which add moisture
to the spindles and help clean them.
Doffer-A series of circular rubber pads that clean
cotton from the spindles.
Picker door-A place on the machine where cotton drops
before being blown into the picker basket.
How is a stripper
harvester different from a mechanical
A stripper strips opened and unopened bolls from the
plant instead of "plucking" the cotton from the bur
What is trash
in the harvested cotton?
Leaves, stems, branches and burs.
Name the two
types of gins?
Roller and saw gin
the mechanics of each type of gin?
Roller Gin-Uses a roller to grab and pull the fiber
under a rotating bar with gaps too small for the seed to pass through.
Saw Gin-Uses curricular saws that grip the fiber and
pull it through narrow slots too small for the seed to pass.
What is a module
An implement that forms modules (or tightly pressed
stacks) of cotton.
Name the ginning
process for short staple lint and
for long staple lint?
Short staple-Saw ginning and long staple-Roller ginning
Why are huge
dryers used in the ginning process?
To reduce moisture and improve fiber quality of the
In what country
were roller gins invented?
What is raw
fiber called after ginning?
of the seed and fiber after separation?
Seed goes to cottonseed oil mills or for livestock
feed. The fiber goes to textile mills
or foreign countries.
What is lint
packaged for market called?
A bale of cotton
How many pounds
are in a bale?
Approximately 500 pounds
What are the
measurements of a universal density
55" tall, 28" wide and 21" thick
The short, fuzzy fibers still attached to the seed
What is classing?
The process which measures fiber characteristics against
a set of standards.
Where is Yarn
and cloth fabricated?
A textile mill
in the opening room of a textile
Bales of lint are opened and placed in a row.
The process of pulling the fibers into parallel alignment
to form a thin web.
What is a sliver?
The first step of turning lint into yarn. Fibers that
have been pulled into a continuous,
untwisted, rope-like strand.
The process which removes impurities and fibers shorter
than ½" from the cotton, so that smoother and more uniform yarn may
What is roving?
Sliver which has been drawn out to a thinner strand
and given a slight twist to improve
What is the
final process in yarn manufacturing?
The roving is drawn and twisted into a fine yarn and
then wound onto bobbins.
What two names
is yarn called during and after
the weaving process?
Weft (filling) is the crosswise yarn and warp is the
What adds strength
to the yarn before weaving?
Warp yarns are coated with a sizing compound or starch
mixture before weaving.
Name the three
Plain, twill and satin
the three basic weaves?
Plain-Weft yarn passes over and under each warp yarn.
Twill-Yarns are interlaced in an angle to form straight,
Satin-Smooth surface is made up mostly of warp yarn
passing over and under all but one
yarn, intersecting in a regular of
irregular formation, not a straight
method of turning yarn into fabric
How is knit
Yarn is made into loops (stitches) which are linked
together by the use of needles.
two basic types of knit fabrics?
Weft knit-Made on a circular needle machine producing
fabric in a tubular form.
Warp knit-A single yarn is twisted and entwined in
several directions lengthwise in an action similar to several yarns entering
Name two types
of cottonseed oil mills?
Screw press and solvent extraction
solvent extraction and screw press
Solvent extraction-Uses an organic solvent that dissolves
the oil from the prepared meats (kernels).
Screw press-Uses high pressure created by a press to
force the oil from the meats.
first step in processing cottonseed
for oil extraction?
In the shaker room a series of screens and air equipment
remove trash from the cottonseed.
The seed is then sent to gin stands
where the linters are removed from the seed and pressed into bales.
How many times
is the delinting process done at
the cottonseed oil mill?
Usually twice, or sometimes three times.
produced from the first cut and
second cut linters?
First cut-Non-chemical products (medical supplies,
twine, candle wicks, etc.)
Second cut-Chemical products (foodstuff, film, paper,
What is the
tough outer shell of the cottonseed
Name the inside
meat of the cottonseed rich in
flaking roller and cooker processes
in oil extraction?
The prepared kernels pass through a series of heavy
cast iron rollers that press the
meats into thin flakes, then travel
to a cooker to reduce their moisture
What is miscella?
A cottonseed oil and hexane (organic solvent) mixture
What is cottonseed
The meats that have been de-oiled, dried and ground
to produce high protein livestock
refining and deodorizing of cottonseed
oil for food?
Refiner-With the use of heat, sodium hydroxide and a centrifuge
the dark oil is transformed into clear yellow oil.
Deodorize-Processes the oil for a lasting clear appearance
and no unwanted flavor.